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These are shown as Fig.3(a),4(a) and 5(a) each representing the total interval, quiet period and disturbed period respectively. To compare the values of VTEC of NavIC and GPS based mostly for the evaluation the values have been brought to the identical reference stage based on the quiet time ionosphere (Chauhan et al. It’s a clear statement that these plots present a linear relationship between NavIC and GPS VTEC values. 2011),Tariku (2015),Sampad et al. 2015),Olatunbosun and Ariyibi (2015)) which was not greater than 5 TECU for each day of analysis and thus obtained plots for NavIC VTEC to GPS VTEC are represented in Fig.3(b),4(b) and 5(b), for complete interval, quiet and disturbed interval, respectively.

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Barack ObamaThe data of VTEC values w.r.t to before and after the anomalous data detection, diminished so as to carry it to the quiet time ionospheric value is represented in Fig. 7(a-b) as the overestimated values for each of the NavIC satellites. The spread of information factors across the imply line possibly as a result of the ionosphere can change over quick distances as well as in the invariant one-diploma grid. The unfold of the information factors in disturbed days are discovered to be more than the calm days and support this truth. Even after correcting for these anomalous values, from every of the PRN’s knowledge set, there stays some difference in GPS to NavIC measured VTEC. POSTSUBSCRIPT values are positive for more than 65% of the data.

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Later, on investigating based mostly on the pattern proven in Fig.3(b), 4(b) and 5(b), it has been discovered that NavIC data has some anomalous VTEC values as shown in Fig 6(a-b) especially in the course of the quiet ionospheric time. After completely removing the anomalous data for the period of evaluation then the scatter plots thus obtained for NavIC VTEC to GPS VTEC are represented in Fig. 3(c),4(c) and 5(c), for the whole interval, quiet and disturbed period, respectively. This anomalous knowledge is because of zero/negative values in one of the pseudorange measurements of the NavIC satellite vary estimates. So the info has been corrected utilizing the same reference stage of VTEC values of NavIC and GPS neglecting all the anomalous values. The anomalous information was noticed for 167 days during the entire period of evaluation.

Here the assumption is that ionosphere is invariant (Paul et al. FLOATSUPERSCRIPT grid invariant ionosphere, particularly for this location. FLOATSUPERSCRIPT grid and the same ionosphere is sampled by NavIC and GPS. In fact, this assumption may not be always true in a strict sense; nevertheless, lowering the grid measurement further for the current purpose might be impractical because of the limited availability of GPS ray paths over any location. FLOATSUPERSCRIPT grid for these navigation techniques are proven in Fig.2 which clearly reveals the unavailability of GPS ray paths under NavIC satellite PRN-5. FLOATSUPERSCRIPT grid, the NavIC VTEC are plotted towards GPS VTEC estimates.

We suggest the 2SMH-DA mechanism, which is a refinement of the celebrated individual-proposing deferred acceptance mechanism (Gale and Shapley, 1962) where every institution is endowed with the choice rule 2SMH (Sönmez and Yenmez, 2021). Not solely the 2SMH-DA mechanism Pareto dominates every other mechanism that satisfies the Supreme-Court docket mandated rules in Saurav Yadav (2020), it’s the one technique-proof mechanism that satisfies all these ideas. Therefore, we consider, 2SMH-DA mechanism is uniquely suited to implement VR and HR policies when positions are heterogenous.

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