Are Transformers More Robust Than CNNs?

Following shao2021adversarial , we first report the robustness of ResNet-50 and DeiT-S on defending towards AutoAttack. This is primarily as a consequence of that each models are usually not adversarially educated Goodfellow2015 ; Madry2018 , which is an efficient way to secure model robustness against adversarial assaults, and we’ll examine it subsequent. S is the allowed perturbation vary. 2020fast ; xie2020smooth , each models will probably be circumvented fully, i.e., 0% robustness on defending in opposition to AutoAttack. 0.001, DeiT-S certainly achieves larger robustness than ResNet-50, i.e., 22.1% vs.

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3.37% on ImageNet-A, 1.20 on ImageNet-C and 1.38% on Stylized-ImageNet. Specifically, we perform soft distillation hinton2015distilling , which minimizes the Kullback-Leibler divergence between the softmax of the instructor mannequin and the softmax of the student model; we undertake the coaching recipe of DeiT throughout distillation. On this section, we make another try to bridge the robustness generalization hole between CNNs and Transformers-we apply data distillation to let ResNet-50 (scholar model) directly study from DeiT-S (instructor model). ResNet-Finest by a big margin on ImageNet-A, ImageNet-C and Stylized-ImageNet. All these outcomes further corroborate that Transformers are much more sturdy than CNNs on out-of-distribution samples.

Robustness Evaluations. Conventional studying paradigm assumes coaching data. In this work, each robustness generalization and adversarial robustness are thought of in our robustness evaluation suite. To correctly entry model performance in the wild, a set of robustness generalization benchmarks have been constructed, e.g., ImageNet-C Hendrycks2018 , Stylized-ImageNet Geirhos2018 , ImageNet-A hendrycks2021nae , and so on. One other normal surrogate for testing model robustness is via adversarial attacks, the place the attackers intentionally add small perturbations or patches to input pictures, for approximating the worst-case analysis scenario Szegedy2014 ; Goodfellow2015 . Testing information are drawn from the same distribution. This assumption typically doesn’t hold, especially in the true-world case where the underlying distribution is simply too sophisticated to be coated in a (limited-sized) dataset.

2.5% on Stylized-ImageNet, suggesting Transformer’s self-attention-like architectures is important for boosting performance on out-of-distribution samples. As talked about in Part 3.1, we by default train all fashions for less than a hundred epochs. We observe introducing Transformer blocks into mannequin design advantages generalization on out-of-distribution samples. We moreover examine this hybrid structure to the pure Transformer structure. This is an ordinary setup in training CNNs goyal2017accurate ; radosavovic2020designing , but not typical in training Transformers pmlr-v139-touvron21a ; liu2021swin . Figure 3: The robustness generalization of ResNet-50, DeiT-S and Hybrid-DeiT.

Furthermore, we observe the utilization of GELU allows ResNet-50 to match DeiT-S in adversarial robustness, i.e., 40.27% vs. 35.50% for defending in opposition to AutoAttack, difficult the previous – view – conclusions bhojanapalli2021understanding ; shao2021adversarial that Transformers are more sturdy than CNNs on defending against adversarial assaults. By default, we set the variety of attacking patches to 4, restrict the largest manipulated space to 10% of the entire image area, and set the assault mode as the non-focused assault. Transformers on defending in opposition to patch-based assaults. 40.32% for defending towards PGD-100, and 35.51% vs. Be aware that completely different from typical patch-based assaults which apply monochrome patches, TPA moreover optimizes the sample of the patches to enhance attack power. We select Texture Patch Attack (TPA) yang2020patchattack as the attacker. 4. We next examine the robustness of CNNs.